Epiphany: Christians celebrate the manifestation of God

TUESDAY, JANUARY 6: Christians worldwide rejoice in the manifestation of Jesus, revealed as God the Son, on the Feast of Epiphany (in Greek, Theophany). Literally “striking appearance,” or “vision of God,” Epiphany and Theophany have been central to both Eastern and Western Christian calendars for centuries. Through Advent, the Western Christian Church anticipated the coming of Jesus, and of course Mary and Joseph were the earliest witnesses. But Christian tradition holds that one key moment in this revelation was the arrival of the Magi—representatives of other nations—when the true unveiling of God’s purpose took place. (Learn more, and find resources, at Catholic Culture and Women for Faith and Family.)

In a similar way, Eastern Orthodox Christians celebrate Jesus’s manifestation as the Son of God, at this time of year, but Eastern tradition focuses on his baptism in the Jordan River as the key moment of revelation.

Note: Many churches in the United States today commemorate Epiphany on the Sunday between Jan. 2 and 8—this year, Jan. 4—and Eastern Orthodox churches following the Julian calendar will observe Theophany in 13 days (on Jan. 19). Most Western Christian churches will commemorate Jesus’s baptism on Sunday, Jan. 11.

Epiphany customs in some regions of the world rival those of Christmas, complete with parades, parties, king cakes and “visiting” Magi. (In centuries past, Epiphany Eve—Twelfth Night—had elaborate traditions all its own.) On the morning of Epiphany in Poland, some children dress in renaissance clothing, carols are sung and homes are blessed; in Argentina, many children awake to find gifts left by the “passing” Magi.

A house blessing, inscribed with chalk, is popular in several parts of central Europe. Write a blessing on your home by inscribing the following above the front door: 20 C+M+B 15. (“2015” split into two, and the initials of the Magi.)

Finnish piparkakuts, ginger spice cookies, are typically cut into the shape of a star and served on Epiphany. Find the authentic recipe at this blog, or in this New York Times post.

In many countries, a king cake filled with almond paste, spiced with exotic spices or decorated with dried fruits is baked, and one bean is tucked inside: the recipient of the slice of cake with the bean is believed blessed for the year (or, in Mexico, the recipient must host the Candlemas party. Wikipedia has details). In some Orthodox nations, a Cross is cast into open water by a priest, and swimmers compete to retrieve it—the reward for which is a blessing by the priest. In numerous countries, Epiphany officially kicks off Carnival season.


In the Western Christian Church, Epiphany commemorates the Adoration of the Magi—and, to a lesser extent, the Baptism of Jesus and the Wedding at Cana. All three events reveal the manifestation of God as Jesus, Christians believe, and some early accounts detail the Miracle at Cana—Christ’s first public miracle—as having occurred on Jan. 6. Eastern Orthodox tradition focuses on Jesus as the Second Person of the Holy Trinity. (Learn more from the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.) As Jesus’s baptism is commemorated foremost in the Orthodox Church, a Great Blessing of the Waters is performed.

Tradition has it that the Magi were baptized by St. Thomas. They are considered saints of the Church.


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