Fat Tuesday and Ash Wednesday: Christians prepare for, begin Lenten season

Mardi Gras mask sitting in pile of colorful paper ribbons

Photo by annca, courtesy of Pixabay

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 28 and WEDNESDAY, MARCH 1: Haul out the eggs, sugar and cream, and let yourself indulge—it’s Fat Tuesday! During the last 24 hours before the start of Western Christian Lent, recipes vary by country: English families fry up pancakes, Polish and Lithuanian homes serve donuts and Swedes and Finns cook up semla pastries—but all reflect the old Christian tradition of using up the rich foods in one’s home before starting the fasting season of Lent. Then, following Fat Tuesday, more than a billion Western Christians begin fasting for the start of the season of Lent. From solemn church services to a nationwide movement nicknamed “Ashes to Go,” adherents observe Ash Wednesday in solemnity.

Did you know? Originally, Fat Tuesday (or Mardi Gras, in French) was known as “Shrove Tuesday,” which derived from shrive, meaning “to confess.” 

MARDI GRAS: CARNE LEVARE VS. CARNIVAL

The popular Carnival associated with Mardi Gras, primarily celebrated in Portuguese-, Spanish- and Italian-speaking countries, derives from carne levare, meaning “to take away flesh/meat.” Street processions abound in Brazil and Venice for Carnival, while a customary eating of salted meat takes a literal meaning to the day in Iceland.

Pile of rounded donuts covered in powdered sugar

A variety of sweet breads, ranging from paczkis to pancakes to pastries, is traditionally baked for Fat Tuesday. Photo by freestocks.org, courtesy of Flickr

PANCAKES & RACES: Gorging on paczkis (pronounced pounch-keys) may be customary in the United States, but the custom of eating pancakes in the United Kingdom takes place on such a massive scale that the tradition has all but been renamed “Pancake Day.” The most famous pancake race has been held annually since 1445 in Olney at Buckinghamshire. Legend has it that a housewife was once so busy making pancakes that she lost track of the time until she heard the church bells ringing for service, and she raced out of the house while still carrying her pan with pancakes. Today in Olney, contestants of the pancake race must carry a frying pan and toss pancakes along the race course; all participants are required to wear an apron and scarf. A church service always follows the races.

MARDI GRAS and CARNIVAL 2017: Parades and festivities start gearing up days before Fat Tuesday, and Mardi Gras New Orleans offers an in-depth look at the rich history behind this American party (along with parade routes, photos, a countdown and much more). Carnival in Venice—a more formal, period-era celebration than the parties in Rio and New Orleans—is thought to have been started in 1162, and today draws approximately 3 million visitors to Venice annually. (View a slideshow of Venetian festivities, here.) Staying home on Mardi Gras? Check out recipes for everything from jambalaya and crab cakes to king cake at Taste of Home and Southern Living.

ASH WEDNESDAY (& CLEAN MONDAY)

In the Western church, Ash Wednesday is a day of repentance and prayer. In some churches, palm branches from the previous year’s Palm Sunday are blessed and burned into ashes, although many churches conducting these services now purchase the ashes from religious-supply companies. During a liturgy marking the day, a church leader swipes the ashes into the shape of a cross on the recipient’s forehead. Rather than wash the ashes, recipients are supposed to let the ashes wear off throughout the remainder of the day as part of their spiritual reflections.

The Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke detail the story of Jesus spending 40 days fasting in the desert, where he is repeatedly tempted by Satan. Lent similarly marks 40 days—not counting Sundays.

CLEAN MONDAY: Eastern Orthodox Christians will start Great Lent the same week as Western Christians, this year, and in 2017, February 27 is Clean Monday—the start of the fasting period for Eastern Christians that prohibits meat, dairy and various other foods. Clean Monday—a public holiday in Greece—is commemorated with outdoor picnics, kite flying and shared family meals. (Find a recipe for Lagana Bread, a traditional Greek Clean Monday favorite, here.)

Week of Prayer for Christian Unity: Churches unite to ‘give a drink’

Back of Christ the Redeemer statue, overlooking the ocean, sky view, in Brazil

The Christ the Redeemer statue in Brazil. This year, the Christian churches of Brazil prepared the internationally-used materials for the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

SUNDAY, JANUARY 18: The world’s billions of Christians turn to the churches of Brazil this week, as adherents join together for the International Week of Prayer for Christian Unity. An observance begun in 1908 as the Octave of Christian Unity, the Week of Prayer turns to a new region and theme each year. In 2015, Christians worldwide will be utilizing biblical resource materials prepared by the Christian churches of Brazil. With a history of tolerance for its varying social classes and ethnic groups, Brazil is now facing increasing levels of bigotry, violence and competition for the religious market—all of which are being directly addressed this week through dialogues, diversity awareness and more. This year, the theme is: “Jesus said to her: ‘Give me to drink’” (John 4:7). By symbolically offering water to anyone who arrives, Christians may appreciate the diversity of the Kingdom of God.

WATTSON AND OCTAVE OF STS. PETER AND PAUL

In 1908, Father Paul Wattson conceived of a week for Christian unity beginning on the Feast of the Confession of Peter, and continuing through the octave of Sts. Peter and Paul. (Wikipedia has details.) The idea was blessed by Pope Pius X, and Benedict XV encouraged its widespread observance; when the World Council of Churches was formed in 1948, the Week of Prayer was further encouraged. Two decades later, the official first materials were prepared for use by churches around the world. (Find this year’s materials available for download here.) In the Southern Hemisphere, where January is typically a time for vacations, churches celebrate the Week of Prayer at a different time—usually, around Pentecost.

FROM KENYA TO CANADA:
AN INTERNATIONAL DIALOGUE

Churches around the world are addressing their members per the 2015 Week of Prayer for Christian Unity.