Laylat al-Qadr and Eid al-Fitr: Muslims mark holiest night, end of Ramadan

Muslim man prayer

Photo courtesy of Pixabay

SUNSET TUESDAY, MAY 19 and SUNSET SATURDAY, MAY 23: The holiest night of the Islamic year arrives for Muslims worldwide with the Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr). Known by many names—Night of Value, Night of Destiny, Night of Measure—Muslims note the anniversary of the night the Quran was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel. (Note: Muhammad did not reveal precisely when the Night of Power occurred, though the 27th day of Ramadan is a traditionally held date; however, as many of the odd-numbered nights in the last 10 days of Ramadan as possible are still observed.)

It is believed that on this sacred night, verses of the Quran were relayed to Muhammad in the year 610 CE, and angels descended to earth for the event. If a devoted Muslim prays in earnest for forgiveness of sins on Laylat al-Qadr and reads the Quran, it’s believed that the night is “better than 1,000 months.” Sins are forgiven and blessings are manifold.

An Eid Unlike Any Other

Cupcakes decorated fancy for Eid

Cupcakes for Eid. Photo by The Baking Tray, courtesy of Flickr

“Even the oldest people living today cannot recall a Ramadan like this,” Algerian journalist Larbi Megari told us this week via Skype from his home. He followed up by email with this account of the startling reality of an Eid without crowds.

“Officially, we are hearing there will be no public Eid prayers in Algeria this week—and in most of the Arab countries. Authorities are asking people to hold Eid prayers at home, which is difficult. Eid prayers are supposed to include a Khutbah, and not everyone is capable of delivering such a message at home.”

Though rare, some countries—such as Iran and Pakistan—have allowed the resumption of communal prayers; however, strict social distancing measures will be enforced.

A RAMADAN IN QUARANTINE: SOCIAL ASPECTS

In The New York Times, Amelia Nierenberg reported on Breaking the Ramadan Fast in Quarantine. She explained: “For many Muslim families, Ramadan is one of the most social months of the year. … It is a month of meals eating with intention, ending in a joyous celebration: Eid al-Fitr, which begins the evening of May 23.”

Interested in 16 tips for celebrating at home? This article suggests ways to make Eid in quarantine special.

Participate in a 13-day virtual celebration of Eid: Check out this site, hosted by Asia Society’s Texas location, for craft how-to videos, cooking videos, read-alongs and more, part of the free online programming.

Still, in spite of virtual celebrations and “gatherings,” Muslims the world over are experiencing often painful interruptions in lifelong traditions. As Eid is a very social holiday—and a major component of the observance is time in a mosque—Muslims are gearing up for a very different Eid this year.

Empty mosque Eid white pillars

Empty mosques will be common this Eid al-Fitr. Photo courtesy of Pxfuel

From Jerusalem, Adam Rasgon reported: A Ramadan Unlike Any Since the Middle Ages. In The Times, he wrote: “The last time Muslim worshipers were kept out of the Aqsa Mosque compound throughout the entire month of Ramadan was when crusaders controlled Jerusalem in the Middle Ages.”

Reporting from Algeria, Larbi explains, “Authorities have announced that there will be no visits to hospitals during Eid day. We have the habit in Algeria of visiting hospitals where there are sick people who are far away from their families, especially here in the capital where the biggest hospitals are receiving sick people from other towns and cities.

“This year, there will be a total curfew during the two-day Eid. Authorities have forbidden family visits that usually take place during these two days. The religious-affairs ministry even issued a fatwa forbidding family visits during Eid.

“One of our favorite traditions is sharing sweets and cakes for Eid—but we won’t be making them this year for the simple reason that no one will visit us at home to give them these sweets. So many things are different this year. Usually, people wear new clothes for the Eid—so important that new clothes are a symbol of Eid. But, this year, shops are closed. The message widely shared on social media this year is: Instead of wearing new clothes, put on your best clothes.

“Finally, we cannot remember our loved ones with cemetery visits, which is an important habit in Algeria during Eid. Authorities do not want public gatherings—even in our cemeteries.”

Dates Muslims bowl

Photo courtesy of PxHere

‘EID SA’ID!’
(HAPPY EID!)

That’s the way to greet Muslim friends, if you care to follow the traditional custom of wishing friends, neighbors and co-workers the best in this festive time.

Note: Spellings vary, and you may see the holiday spelled Eid ul-Fitr as well. 

Before sunrise on Eid al-Fitr, Muslims pray, bathe and put on their best clothing. A small breakfast—usually including dates—is consumed, and Zakat (charitable giving) has been completed.

While adherents typically would spend ample time enjoying the company of family and friends and attending carnivals and fireworks displays, social distancing measures will prevent most of these types of activities in 2020.

THE END OF RAMADAN AROUND THE WORLD

With nearly one-quarter of the world’s population observing the Islamic faith, it is significant to note that, unlike most Muslim holidays—which may or may not be observed by all Muslims each year—the two Eid holidays (Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr) are always commemorated universally.

Eid Sa’id! Muslims celebrate festival breaking the Ramadan fast

Group of people kneeling in white and red clothing

Click on the image above to watch a video of a student-based program for Eid al-Fitr. Courtesy of Vimeo

SUNSET MONDAY, JUNE 3: Sunrise-to-sunset fasting has ended for the world’s Muslims, and the Islamic community transitions from the month of Ramadan to the month of Shawwaal with a joyous “Feast of the Breaking of the Fast,” called Eid al-Fitr. (Eid Sa’id! is a common greeting, meaning, happy Eid!) (Note: Spellings vary, and you may see the holiday alternatively spelled Eid ul-Fitr, as well.)

From the United Arab Emirates: UAE’s Ministry of Human Resources and Emiratisation has announced that private sector workers will have four days for Eid Al Fitr in 2019 (one day less than public sector workers). For those in the private sector, the holiday will start on June 3 and end on either Thursday, June 6, or Friday, June 7, depending on moon sighting (the public sector holiday begins on June 2).

Group of people on knees in front of mosque

Iranians in prayer on Eid al-Fitr. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

EID AL-FITR: FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET

Before sunrise on Eid al-Fitr, Muslims pray, bathe and put on their best clothing. A small breakfast—usually including dates—is consumed before heading to a nearby mosque (or, in some cases, an open square or field). In the mosques, open squares and fields, Muslims pray in unison; following prayers, feasting commences.

Government buildings, schools and businesses close in Muslim countries as everyone visits family and friends, dines on sweet treats and joyfully greets passersby. In many regions, festivities will continue for three days; in some regions, festivities can last up to nine days.

Zakat (charitable giving) has been completed, and many adherents spend ample time enjoying the company of family and friends, attending carnivals and fireworks displays, giving gifts and expressing thanks to Allah.

Did you know? The first Eid was observed by the Prophet Muhammad in 624 CE. 

The grand holiday of Eid al-Fitr is referred to in many ways: the Sugar Feast, Sweet Festival, Feast of the Breaking of the Fast and Bajram, to name just a few.

AROUND THE WORLD: FROM THE UK TO ASIA TO AFRICA

With nearly one-quarter of the world’s population observing the Islamic faith, countries around the world are preparing their banks, airlines, shops, business hours and public services for the major holiday.

Unlike most Muslim holidays, which may or may not be observed by all Muslims each year, the two Eid holidays—Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr—are commemorated universally.

In the UK, some of the largest festivals of the year will take place for the Eid holidays.

Did you know?
In Egypt, Eid ul-Fitr is an occasion for neighborhood carnivals; in Asia, a celebratory dish contains toasted sweet vermicelli noodles and dried fruit; in Saudi Arabia, wealthy families buy large quantities of rice and other staples and leave them anonymously on the doorsteps of those less fortunate.

Looking for Eid recipes?
Sweet and savory selections are available courtesy of the BBC. For sweet recipes, check out NPR.org. For even more, try the New York Times.

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Laylat al Qadr and Eid al-Fitr: Muslims observe holiest night, end of Ramadan

Group of Muslims kneeling in prayer, daytime, outdoors

Muslims in Iran holding Eid al-Fitr prayer. Photo by M. Hasan Miremadi, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

SUNSET SUNDAY, JUNE 10 and SUNSET THURSDAY, JUNE 14: The holiest night of the Islamic year arrives for Muslims worldwide with the Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr). Known by many names—Night of Value, Night of Destiny, Night of Measure—Muslims note the anniversary of the night the Quran was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel. (Note: Muhammad did not reveal precisely when the Night of Power occurred, though the 27th day of Ramadan is a traditionally held date; however, as many of the odd-numbered nights in the last 10 days of Ramadan as possible are still observed.)

It is believed that on this sacred night, verses of the Quran were relayed to Muhammad in the year 610 CE, and angels descended to earth for the event. If a devoted Muslim prays in earnest for forgiveness of sins on Laylat al-Qadr and reads the Quran, it’s believed that the night is “better than 1,000 months.” Sins are forgiven and blessings are manifold.

Mosque lit up at night, people walking out of mosque and nearby

Photo by Sharonang, courtesy of pixabay

I’TIKAF & THE FINAL DAYS OF RAMADAN

Muslims who can afford to spend the final 10 days of Ramadan in the mosque may choose to observe a form of worship known as I’tikaf. A fast observed during the day is supplemented with intense prayer and Quran study both day and night. Nighttime meals are provided by most mosques to I’tikaf participants. Ten days of observance is ideal, but some participants follow the practice for shorter periods. Both men and women are encouraged to observe I’tikaf.

Note: Due to traditional moon sighting calculations, Muslim observances often vary by country or region.

THE END OF RAMADAN: HAPPY EID!

Sunrise-to-sunset fasting through some of the year’s longest, hottest days has ended for the world’s Muslims, and the Islamic community transitions from the month of Ramadan to Shawwaal with a joyous “Feast of the Breaking of the Fast,” called Eid al-Fitr. Islamic days start at sunset, and for 2018, official astronomers have predicted that sunrise on June 14 will open Eid al-Fitr.

Note: Spellings vary, and you may see the holiday spelled Eid ul-Fitr as well. The proper greeting for this festival is “Eid Sa’id!” (Happy Eid!)

For the grand holiday, Muslims around the world awaken early, heading to a nearby mosque (or, in some cases, an open square or field) and praying in unison, before feasting with families and friends. Government buildings, schools and businesses close in Muslim countries as everyone visits family and friends, dines on sweet treats and greets passersby with a “Happy Eid.” In many regions, festivities will continue for three days or more.

Did you know? The first Eid was observed by the Prophet Muhammad in 624 CE. 

Before sunrise on Eid al-Fitr, Muslims pray, bathe and put on their best clothing. A small breakfast—usually including dates—is consumed before heading to a nearby mosque, hall or open area. Zakat (charitable giving) has been completed, and adherents spend ample time enjoying the company of family and friends, attending carnivals and fireworks displays, giving gifts and expressing thanks to Allah.

From ground, rides at a fair

Eid al-Fitr fairs and festivals, such as this one in Amsterdam, are common. Photo by Charles Roffey, courtesy of Flickr

The grand holiday of Eid al-Fitr is referred to in many ways: the Sugar Feast, Sweet Festival, Feast of the Breaking of the Fast and Bajram, to name just a few.

EID AROUND THE WORLD

With nearly one-quarter of the world’s population observing the Islamic faith, countries around the world are preparing their banks, airlines, shops, business hours and public services for the major holiday. Unlike most Muslim holidays, which may or may not be observed by all Muslims each year, the two Eid holidays—Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr—are always commemorated universally.

Did you know? In Egypt, Eid al-Fitr is an occasion for neighborhood carnivals; in Asia, the celebratory dish contains toasted sweet vermicelli noodles and dried fruit; in Saudi Arabia, wealthy families buy large quantities of rice and other staples and leave them anonymously on the doorsteps of those less fortunate.

Eid al-Fitr: Muslims worldwide greet Ramadan’s end with festivals, vacations

Mosque with crowd under blue sky

Eid prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Pakistan. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Note: Due to traditional moon sighting calculations, Muslim observances often vary by country or region.

WEDNESDAY, JULY 6: Eid Sa’id! (Happy Eid!)

Sunrise-to-sunset fasting through some of the year’s longest, hottest days has ended for the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims, and the Islamic community transitions from the month of Ramadan to Shawwaal with a joyous “Feast of the Breaking of the Fast,” called Eid al-Fitr. Islamic days start at sunset, and for 2016, official astronomers have predicted that sunrise on July 6 will open Eid ul-Fitr. (Spellings vary and you may see the holiday alternatively spelled Eid ul-Fitr as well.)

For the grand holiday, Muslims around the world awaken early, heading to a nearby mosque (or, in some cases, an open square or field) and praying in unison, before feasting with families and friends. Government buildings, schools and businesses close in Muslim countries as everyone visits family and friends, dines on sweet treats and greets passersby with a “Happy Eid.” In many regions, festivities will continue for three days; in Turkey, this year, festivities will last nine days.

Table set fancy with bowls of dates, wraps, spices and cookies

A traditional Moroccan feast for Eid al-Fitr. Photo by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, courtesy of Flickr

Fast fact: In 2016, Muslims in the Northern Hemisphere fasted during some of the “longest” days of the calendar year, as Ramadan fell during the weeks surrounding the June solstice. In some areas of the UK, fasting lasted up to 19 hours in a day. (Of course, Muslims in the Southern Hemisphere enjoyed relatively short fasting periods this year.)

Before sunrise on Eid al-Fitr, Muslims pray, bathe and put on their best clothing. A small breakfast—usually including dates—is consumed before heading to a nearby mosque, hall or open area. Zakat (charitable giving) has been completed, and adherents spend ample time enjoying the company of family and friends, attending carnivals and fireworks displays, giving gifts and expressing thanks to Allah.

Did you know? The first Eid was observed by the Prophet Muhammad in 624 CE. 

The grand holiday of Eid al-Fitr is referred to in many ways: the Sugar Feast, Sweet Festival, Feast of the Breaking of the Fast and Bajram to name just few.

AROUND THE GLOBE

With nearly one-quarter of the world’s population observing the Islamic faith, countries around the world are preparing their banks, airlines, shops, business hours and public services for the major holiday. Unlike most Muslim holidays, which may or may not be observed by all Muslims each year, the two Eid holidays—Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr—are always commemorated universally. In recognition of this principal festival, the U.S. Postal Service recently unveiled its 2016 Eid stamp; Philadelphia recently has, as New York did, added the two Eid holidays to its public school calendar. In the UK, some of the largest festivals of the year will take place for the Eid holidays. Since 1987, Australia’s Multicultural Eid Festival and Fair has drawn tens of thousands of attendees annually.

Did you know? In Egypt, Eid ul-Fitr is an occasion for neighborhood carnivals; in Asia, the celebratory dish contains toasted sweet vermicelli noodles and dried fruit; in Saudi Arabia, wealthy families buy large quantities of rice and other staples and leave them anonymously on the doorsteps of those less fortunate.

Women stand with their backs to the camera, wearing headscarves, at a crowded beach

For many Muslims, the Eid holiday break is a time for visiting family or taking a vacation. Photo by United Nations Photo, courtesy of Flickr

2016 NEWS AND EID RECIPES

Workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) could receive up to five days off for the Eid holidays, this year, news publications report. As the holiday break this year will coincide with summer school holidays, experts are predicting high travel rates.

Dubai expects almost 2 million travelers to use the Dubai International Airport over the weekends starting July 1 and July 8. Among the most popular destinations: Georgia, Poland, the Czech Republic, Armenia and Sarajevo, Bosnia.

With Turkey’s nine-day Eid holiday break, this year, hotel occupancy rates will increase to over 80 percent, report news publications. Though foreign arrivals have decreased, travel within the country is expected to rise.

Bank Indonesia has prepared money exchange posts across the country ahead of the Eid holidays, and the central bank has prepared Rp 160.4 trillion in various denominations, reported Tempo.co. In many countries, spending increases dramatically before and during the Eid holidays.

Looking for Eid recipes? Sweet and savory selections are available courtesy of the BBC. For sweet recipes, check out NPR.org. For even more, try the New York Times.

Eid ul-Fitr: Muslims rejoice in Feast of Breaking the Fast of Ramadan

Large stadium filled with people and pillars

Thousands of Indonesian Muslims gather for Eid ul Fitr prayer in Istiqlal Mosque, the largest mosque in Southeast Asia. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Comons

SUNSET SUNDAY and MONDAY, JULY 27-28: Eid Mubarak! The long days of Ramadan have ended to make way for a new and triumphant day. Muslim days begin at sunset on the previous evening—so the new Islamic month begins at sunset July 27 and the festivities of Eid al-Fitr, the Feast of the Breaking of the Fast, are expected to start on the morning of Monday July 28.

Remember the global diversity in this celebration by more than a billion Muslim men, women and children. First, English spellings of the Arabic phrase Eid ul-Fitr vary. Second, the start of this holiday may also vary, based on how each regional community around the world interprets the sighting of a new moon. Finally, the length of the Eid celebration varies—perhaps as short as a single day but usually lasting two days or even longer.

Throughout the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims spent each daylight hour without food or water, restraining their worldly desires in one of the most sacred traditions of Islam. Then, the first day of the month of Shawwal brings the Eid, and Muslims are actually not permitted to fast. Grand feasts ensue, prayer is offered in congregations and in some regions, festivities last for three days. Fireworks, carnivals, gift exchanges and visits from family and friends add to the joyous revelry of Eid al-Fitr.

This grand holiday originated with the Prophet Muhammad, in what a hadith (a saying of the Prophet) describes as a declaration that the Almighty had fixed this time of festivity for Muslim celebration.

The day’s events begin early on Eid al-Fitr—before sunrise—with prayer, bathing and the donning of new clothing. A small breakfast, often of dates, is consumed before adherents head to a nearby mosque, hall or even an open field in many parts of the world. (According to Islamic tradition, Eid’s prayer may only be offered as a part of the overall Muslim community, so huge crowds show up and many mosques around the world have lines of praying Muslims spilling out the doors onto sidewalks, parking lots or fields. Wikipedia has details.)

Also a part of these celebrations is the Zakat, a traditional donation to charity. Usually, sermons instruct the faithful to ask Allah’s forgiveness and to, in return, grant forgiveness to others. When prayers are over, Muslims visit friends and family, receive visitors in their homes and attend large, communal celebrations. (Learn more from IslamiCity.)

One of the largest temporary human migrations globally is the Eid al-Fitr homecoming of Indonesian Muslims, primarily workers who typically live far from their hometowns. The travelers seek forgiveness from parents, in-laws and elders, and all join in a feast together.

IN THE NEWS:
EID TRAINS, BRITISH MUSLIMS
AND A PHOTO SLIDESHOW

Pakistan Railways announced weeks ago that it would run special Eid trains for the Eid ul-Fitr holiday in anticipation of the vast number of pilgrims making the journey to their hometowns for the holiday of Eid ul-Fitr. Train schedules are revised in many Muslim countries.

The UK’s The Guardian recently asked Muslim bloggers to share their experiences of being a Muslim in Britain today—the best and worst aspects, how it has shaped their views of Britain as a whole, etc.—and the results are in this article.

Interested in what Eid al-Fitr looks like around the world? The Huffington Post has a photo slideshow.

Eid Mubarak! Muslims end Ramadan with joyous Eid ul-Fitr

Muslim family walking to mosque and tiled outdoor gathering area in the distance

A family in Indonesia heads to the mosque for Eid ul-Fitr prayer. It’s obligatory that the first prayer of Eid ul-Fitr be said in communion with others, so Muslims gather in huge numbers for the morning prayers in communities all around the world. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

SUNDOWN WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 7: The long days of Ramadan are over, and Muslims give thanks to Allah for the strength to have fasted all month long—now, it’s time to celebrate! Islamic days start at sunset, and sunrise August 8 will open Eid ul-Fitr, a grand holiday with Muslims around the world awakening early, heading to a nearby mosque or in some cases an open square or field and praying in unison, before feasting with families and friends. Government buildings, schools and businesses close in Muslim countries as everyone “heads home” to visit family and friends, dine on sweet treats and wish all passersby a “Blessed Eid.” In some regions, festivities continue for three days.

Note: Dates always vary on Muslim festivals. Based on early calculations of moon sightings, it’s estimated that Eid ul-Fitr will start one day later in North America, at sunset on August 8. Even within North America, major Muslim centers often schedule more than one day of Eid ul-Fitr prayers to accommodate the faithful who are following slightly different versions of the calendar.

Feet decorated with Mehndi henna tattoo

For Muslim women on the Indian subcontinent, it’s popular to apply mehndi, or henna tattoos, for Eid ul-Fitr. Photo courtesy of Fotopedia

Prior to the start of Eid, donations are made to the poor in a ritual known as Zakat. One of the five Pillars of Islam, the purpose of Zakat at Eid ul-Fitr is for everyone—rich or poor—to equally enjoy a bounty at the end of Ramadan. (Check out photos of Bangladeshi Muslims shopping for Eid at BDNews24.com.) During this time parents also purchase small gifts for their children, called Eidi, and relatives save coins to give to children’s Eid-ey-yah, or allowance during the festivities of Eid ul-Fitr. (Wikipedia has details.) Children often spend Eid-ey-yah on admission to amusement parks, gardens or other public areas.

The morning of Eid starts early, with ritual washing, new clothes and a small breakfast, usually of dates. All Muslims, regardless of location, head to Muslim centers for Eid prayer, which must be performed in congregation. Muslims express a unified empathy for the poor and gratefulness to Allah, all the while facing the day with great happiness. (Learn more about Eid prayer from IslamiCity.)

A sermon follows, with a supplication asking God’s forgiveness and mercy for all living beings. Throughout the day, street processions entertain families; services draw visitors to mosques and public parks; large halls are rented for feasts and Muslims invite everyone, even non-Muslims, to partake in the celebratory meals.

EID UL-FITR AROUND THE WORLD

How does Eid differ around the world—and how is it the same?

  • African American girls dressed in Muslim clothing on a sunny day

    Two girls in Islamberg, New York on Eid ul-Fitr. Photo courtesy of Flickr

    In Egypt, Eid ul-Fitr lasts three days and families gather for neighborhood carnivals and sweet treats, like kahk (cookies filled with nuts and covered with powdered sugar). Some children ride decorated bikes around the community.

  • In Cape Town, South Africa, many like to gather at Green Point for the moon sighting that will signal the end of Ramadan and the start of Eid. Every attendee brings a dish to pass at the shared meal for breaking the final fast day of Ramadan.
  • In Asia, women and girls apply mehndi, or henna, on their hands and feet. After Eid prayers, some families visit graveyards to pray for the salvation of deceased family members. A common celebratory dish contains toasted sweet vermicelli noodles, milk and dried fruit.
  • In Saudi Arabia, hospitality comes first as shopkeepers hand out free gifts; strangers distribute gifts to children at random; well-off families buy large quantities of rice and other staples and leave them anonymously on the doorsteps of those less fortunate.
  • In Afghanistan, the night before Eid is filled with chanting, oil lamps lighting the night and firecrackers. On the day of Eid ul-Fitr, families greet one another with “Happy Eid to you; may your fasting and prayers be accepted by God, and may you be counted among those who will go to the Hajj-pilgrimage.”

BAN ON YOUTUBE TO BE LIFTED AFTER EID UL-FITR

Reports are circling that the Pakistani government-imposed ban on YouTube may be lifted after Eid ul-Fitr, after the website was blocked for sacrilegious content in Pakistan. (Read more at Pakistan Today.) Hardly alone, countries like Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sudan and Iran have also blocked YouTube due to concerns about the website’s content.