Rosh Hashanah: Shanah Tovah, 5777!

wpid-2010_09_08_Rosh_Hashanah_treats.jpg

Honey, apples and pomegranates are common fare on Rosh Hashanah.

SUNSET SUNDAY OCTOBER 2: Sound the shofar and wish your neighbor L’shanah tovah: “For a good year!” It’s Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year—and it’s also the start of the High Holidays.

For two days, Jews around the world attend services, seek forgiveness and joyfully enter the annual High Holy Days. Sometimes called the Days of Awe, this period culminates in Yom Kippur, the solemn Day of Atonement, which starts at sunset on Tuesday, October 11 this year.

What are the High Holidays? Sometimes referred to as “High Holidays,” or “High Holy Days,” this is Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur and, often, the days in between the two holidays. One description of this period says, in essence, that G_d opens the books of judgment as the new year begins and finally, on Yom Kippur, the judgment for the year is “sealed.”

‘Trying Extra, Extra Hard to Get Along’

Every year, since its founding a decade ago, ReadTheSpirit magazine has covered the Jewish High Holy Days. Central themes are taking stock of the previous year, reconciling broken relationships, asking forgiveness and preparing for a better new year.  This year, we asked Jewish scholar and contributing writer Joe Lewis to write about his reflections as he approaches 5777. Joe writes …

I’ve been reading one of the complicated medieval acrostic poems added to the “additional” liturgy for Yom Kippur. Many people know that Jewish involves three daily liturgical units, with an extra one on special days such as holy days. The extra liturgical unit recalls the special sacrifices of a holy day in the time of the Temple.

On Yom Kippur, the extra liturgy includes several extra poems–extra extras. One of the longest and most complicated of these recalls the special sacrifices of Yom Kippur as outlined in the Mishnah, the early compilation of Jewish law and tradition. Even if he knew his duties well, the High Priest had to take a week-long refresher course and practice, practice, practice for the rituals of this day, with its immersions and changes of clothing and the tricky balancing of a pan of glowing coals in one hand and a ladle of incense in the other. Don’t try this at home!

What you can do at home is, like me, refresh your understanding of the ingeniously elliptical Hebrew poetry.

You might think I’m one of those people who’d like to see the Temple rebuilt. In its time, it was a world-wide tourist destination and well worth a visit; and none of us knows how its rituals might stir modern skeptical religious natures. Some think its time will come again, soon. Others, though, consider all references to the sacrificial system–even the “additional” liturgy through which it is recalled–outdated, even distasteful or downright primitive. I’m neither of those.

For me, the Temple ritual symbolizes a way of connecting with the divine. I can mourn its loss, and like any mourner can dwell on every memory I can recover, without wishing for its return. What’s more, the loss of the Temple ritual is a valuable symbol in itself. Unlike the many tragic sufferings forced on the Jewish people throughout our long history, it’s one tragedy that (our sages taught) we brought upon ourselves through causeless hatred.

The weeks leading up to Yom Kippur are a time to make peace for offenses between people; then we can seek God’s forgiveness for our sins with hearts free of bitterness. Dwelling on the loss of our ancient form of prayer should remind us that unless we make peace–with our neighbor whose lawn sign offends us, with our more distant neighbors whose neighborhood we find unfamiliar and consider enviable or unsafe, with neighboring peoples whose intentions we fear and mistrust–we can lose all that we cherish.

There’s no better time to try extra, extra hard to get along with others!

APPLES AND HONEY FOR A ‘SWEET’ NEW YEAR

Apples and muffins on wood

Photo courtesy of Pixabay

For Rosh Hashanah, honey and apples are the most famous holiday foods in the United States; other foods, including dates and pomegranates, have ancient associations with the New Year and still are enjoyed in Jewish communities around the world. The honey-and-apples symbol, often seen on holiday cards and other Rosh Hashanah media, is a reminder of the joy in welcoming a “sweet” new year.

Literally “head of the year,” Rosh Hashanah was never referred to by name in the Bible. Instead, references in Leviticus were made to Yom Teruah, the day of the sounding of the shofar. There are many stories and lessons associated with the blowing of the shofar now, but the Bible does not clearly explain the symbol. In the synagogue, 100 notes are blown each day of the New Year festivities; some refer to this noise as a “call to repentance.” Traditionally, Jewish teaching associates Rosh Hashanah with the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve.

A lesser-known Jewish tradition related to Rosh Hashanah is tashlikh, or “casting off.” After filling their pockets—most often with small bits of bread—devotees walk to flowing water and empty their pockets, thereby symbolically “casting off” the sins of the old year.

Sweet recipes: Looking to bake up something sweet and scrumptious this Rosh Hashanah? Try Huffington Post’s 21 recipes with honey and apples or a Rosh Hashanah honey cake courtesy of the New York Times. For an entire menu of Rosh Hashanah recipes, check out Chabad.org, AllRecipes, Epicurious, Food Network and Martha Stewart.

IN THE NEWS: COSTCO, AN EASY RH DINNER & A FREE EBOOK

Think that pomegranates and some of the other exotic fruits of Rosh Hashanah are difficult to find? My Jewish Learning checks out Costco, and lists several sweet treats available at the chain of superstores.

Preparation for Rosh Hashanah doesn’t have to be an arduous task, says the Jewish Telegraphic Agency: Here are some tips for the “easiest Rosh Hashanah dinner ever.”

Free holiday cookbook: One of the fresh links we spotted this year is a tasty e-book of holiday recipes from My Jewish Learning. Here’s a link to download the book. Recipes include Pomegranate and Honey Glazed Chicken, plus Apple Kugel Crumble Cake.

 

New Year: Ring in 2016 with global traditions and fresh perspectives

New Year's 2016 greeting

Photo courtesy of Pixabay

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 31 and FRIDAY, JANUARY 1: Happy New Year!

Fireworks, champagne toasts and Dick Clark’s New Year’s Rockin’ Eve with Ryan Seacrest kick off the start of the Gregorian year worldwide, as revelers usher in the year 2016. In several world countries, New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day means family gatherings, elaborate meals and plenty of parties. From the United States to Mexico, Ireland and Japan, time-honored traditions meet the latest global trends on New Year’s Eve In New York, celebrities and party-goers watch the famed “ball drop” in Times Square, counting the seconds as the 12,000-pound crystal ball lowers to ground level.

NEW YEAR’S EVE: FROM MEXICO TO KOREA, RUSSIA & NEW YORK

New York at night with lights and confetti for New Year's, crowds

New Year’s Eve in New York’s Times Square. Photo by Anthony Quintano, courtesy of Flickr

For many, New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day traditions span centuries. In Mexico, it is tradition to eat one grape with each chime of the clock’s bell at midnight, making a wish with each grape. A special sweetbread is baked for the holiday, and in homes across the country, red, yellow and green decorations are hung, in hopes of luck in the New Year in life, love, work and wealth. In Korea, ancestors are paid tribute at the New Year, and in Canada, the United States and the UK, Polar Bear Plunges have steadily been gaining popularity as a New Year’s Day custom. In Russia, some blini is in order for a proper New Year’s party. Tradition traces the thin pancakes back to ancient Slavs, and today, Russian blini may be stuffed with cheese or served in a variety of other ways. (Find a recipe and more at WallStreetJournal.com.)

From Times Square: Since 1907, the famous New York City “ball drop” has marked New Year’s Eve for millions in Times Square and for billions more through televised broadcasting of the event. Notable televised events began in 1956, with Guy Lombardo and his band broadcasting from the ballroom of New York’s Waldorf-Astoria hotel. During the tenure of Guy Lombardo, young dick Clark began to broadcast on ABC, and following Lombardo’s death in 1977, Dick Clark’s New Year’s Rockin’ Eve soon became the hit of the nation. Dick Clark hosted the show for 33 years, and in 2015, Ryan Seacrest will host his 10th show, which is now called Dick Clark’s New Year’s Rockin’ Eve with Ryan Seacrest.

Celebrity lineup: Confirmed for this year is headliner Carrie Underwood, who will be joined by Luke Bryan, Wiz Khalifa and Demi Lovato. One Direction will headline the Billboard Hollywood Party in Los Angeles, and singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett will make a live appearance from his concert at Barclays Center in Brooklyn. This year, the show will pack 38 performances into more than 5 hours of music, beginning on Thursday, Dec. 31 at 8/7 c on the ABC Television Network. (The show can also be viewed live online.) Singer-songwriter Taylor Swift is set to release the world premiere of her new music video, “Out of the Woods,” during ABC’s telecast.

WATCH NIGHT AND MARY: A CHRISTIAN NEW YEAR CELEBRATION

In some Christian churches, New Year’s Eve is a night of quiet reflection, prayer and thanksgiving. There’s a long-standing Methodist tradition called “Watch Night,” a custom started by Methodism’s founder John Wesley, and some Protestant groups follow similar traditions. In Greece and in Orthodox Christian communities, New Year’s is spent singing Kalanda—carols—and eating the vasilopita, or St. Basil’s, cake. On January 1, the octave of Christmas culminates in the feast of the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God.

SHOGATSU: JAPANESE BUDDHIST SPECTACULAR

Two glasses filled with bubbly champagne against dark background

Photo by Bill Masson, courtesy of Flickr

In Japan, New Year’s preparations begin weeks in advance, with pressed rice cakes prepared in a variety of flavors and often cooked with broth for a traditional New Year’s soup. At midnight on Dec. 31, Buddhist temples ring their bells 108 times, which is an auspicious number in Buddhist tradition. After midnight, many families head to a local temple to pray, and then feast together afterward. The following morning, New Year’s greetings are exchanged and delicacies like sashimi and sushi are consumed.

PARTY PLANNING: RECIPES, HOSTING TIPS AND COCKTAILS

  • Drink recipes are at Forbes.com and L.A. Times. Looking for a Mocktail? Delicious combinations are available from HGTV.

Rosh Hashanah: Preparing for the (sweet) Jewish New Year 5776

Down on plate with Jewish writing on it, bowl of honey surrounded by three red apples

Apples and honey are traditional fare on Rosh Hashanah. Photo by Jeremy Price, courtesy of Flickr

SUNSET SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 13: Blasts from the shofar and rich dishes made with honey mean it’s Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year—and it’s also the start of the High Holidays.

On the first and second days of the Jewish month of Tishri, Rosh Hashanah is celebrated by Jews around the world. In Hebrew, Rosh Hashanah means “head of the year,” or “first of the year,” and many Jews use this period of time to make resolutions and commitments for self-improvement. Sins are “cast” into a river and honey is consumed for hopes of a sweet New Year.

Do you know someone who is Jewish? Wish him or her L’shanah tovah—“For a good year!”

On Rosh Hashanah, work is not permitted and many more traditional adherents spend the day in the synagogue. The shofar, a ram’s horn blown like a trumpet, is one of the holiday’s most famous symbols—but Rosh Hoshanah also comes with special readings and prayers for a good new year.

Traditionally, Jewish teaching associates Rosh Hashanah with the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve, and the day’s services focus on the relationship between G_d and humanity. (Learn more from Judaism 101.)

HONEY AND STONES: A SWEET NEW YEAR AND TASHLICH

Rosh Hashana card from early 20th Century

An elaborate Rosh Hashanah greeting card from a century ago from the collection of the Jewish Museum in New York City.

Of the sweet foods consumed on Rosh Hashanah, none is more popular than honey. Jerusalem, biblically referred to as “the land of milk and honey,” is yet another reason to eat honey on this special holiday. Most Jews eat apples or bread dipped in honey, or create dishes that incorporates these ingredients. (Wikipedia has details.)

Prayers near a body of water accompany the practice of tashlich, which is the “casting off” of sins. The faithful travel to flowing water and empty their pockets into the river, symbolically casting off their sins. Typically, small bits of bread are placed in the pockets before tashlich, and later “cast off” during the ritual.

What are the High Holidays? Sometimes referred to as “High Holidays,” or “High Holy Days,” this is the period of Hashanah and Yom Kippur and usually the phrase includes the 10 days in between. One description of this period says, in essence, that G_d opens the books of judgment as the new year begins and finally, on Yom Kippur, the judgment for the year is “sealed.”

Shofar on white background

A shofar. Photo by The Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life, courtesy of Flickr

IN THE NEWS: A SHOFAR VISIT

For decades, rabbis and volunteers have been bringing the sound of the shofar to those who cannot attend synagogue services, whether due to age, poor health or occupation. Though driving a car is not permitted on holidays for traditionally observant Jews, some of these “house-call” shofar blowers are willing to walk for hours to add this important holiday element. (Chabad.org reported.) Jews: To request a home visit on Rosh Hashanah, contact your local Chabad Center.

Beatles ticket to an Israeli concert that never happenedThe Beatles in Israel? One of the most fascinating historical stories about Israel published as the year 5775 draws to a close is this lengthy column by Jewish Press writer Saul Jay Singer about a Beatles concert that might have taken place in 1965—but never did. Among other intriguing details about the ill-fated show, Singer found a ticket that promoters printed in preparation for the concert. The Beatles are on our minds, here at ReadTheSpirit, after the recent OurValues series by Charles Honey about the band’s enduring influence in our lives. Seems like an appropriate set of holiday dots to connect: Honey, the Beatles and Israel, too?

Want to make a perfect brisket? It’s a holiday favorite in many Jewish homes and, this week, FeedTheSpirit columnist Bobbie Lewis (with guest writer Debbi Eber) tackle the tips and techniques for a perfect brisket dinner.

Sweet recipes: Looking to bake up something sweet and scrumptious this Rosh Hashanah? Try the Jewish Chronicle’s honey cake trifle; Huffington Post’s 21 recipes with honey and apples; or forward.com’s granola baked apples. For an entire menu of Rosh Hashanah recipes, check out AllRecipes, Epicurious, Food Network and Martha Stewart.

New Year: Jains usher in Vira Nirvana Samvat 2541

Large marble statue of man sitting with legs crossed, hands in lap, eyes closed, meditating

A marble depiction of Lord Mahavir in Delhi, India. Jains count the years of this era as having begun with Lord Mahavir’s attainment of moksha (nirvana). Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 24: Jains usher in a New Year!

According to Jain belief, a man named Mahavira attained moksha (nirvana) on Diwali night of 527 B cE. As Mahavira was the 24th and final Tirthankar (person who has conquered the cycle of birth and death) of this portion of our current cosmic time cycle, Jains began counting the calendar year from the date of Mahavira’s attainment. This year, Jains will welcome the year 2541.

On the first day of the New Year, Jains perform Snatra Puja at the temple and offer sweets. Fresh account books are opened, and business accounts from last year have been settled. Vira Nirvana Samvat (era) began with Mahavir’s enlightenment, and Jains also recognize that the chief disciple of Mahavir attained kevala jnana (omniscience, or supreme knowledge) on the morning of the New Year. At the temple today, Jains perform special morning worship.

The Jain calendar is lunisolar—that is, based on the position of the moon in relation to earth, and also adjusted to coincide with the sun.

Ethiopians and Rastafari mark Enkutatash, New Year, 40th anniversary

Dark-skinned boy holding out orange flower  with yellow flowers in background

An Ethiopian New Year card. Photo courtesy of the International Livestock Research Institute and Flickr

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11: Harvest and autumn themes take center stage in many September holidays and celebrations, but in Ethiopia, the opposite is true: Today is Enkutatash, the first day of the Ethiopian New Year and the end of the rainy season. Flowers are bursting into bloom in the fields, and young children gather bouquets to bring to friends. Enkutatash typically begins in church and leads to traditional shared meals, the exchange of New Year’s songs and greetings. (Wikipedia has details.) Many Ethiopians recall, today, the return of the Queen of Sheba from her visit to King Solomon in Jerusalem.

Did you know? The Ethiopian calendar is based on the Coptic calendar, which was fixed to the Julian calendar in 25 BCE. The New Year date is August 29 on the Julian calendar—which, given the current 13-day gap between calendars—pegs Enkutatash as September 11 on the Gregorian calendar.

Beyond Ethiopia, many families around the world have begun marking Enkutatash. The Ethiopian African Millennium Group promoted a massive festival in 2007, and large celebrations have taken place in Washington, San Jose and Seattle. Long before the Western festivals for Enkutatash, though, the Rastafari—ardent believers in late Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie as the Messiah—have marked this event, with Nyabinghi drumming sessions, shared meals and joy.

Hungry? Try an easy-to-follow recipe for traditional Enkutatash wat (stew), courtesy of In Culture Parent.

ANNIVERSARY OF EMPEROR HAILE SELASSIE

Rastafari and Ethiopians may note tomorrow’s 40th anniversary of the ousting of Emperor Haile Selassie, by the Dergue junta. On September 12, 1974, reformist officers toppled the monarchy that had ruled Ethiopia for centuries. Emperor Haile Selassie—nicknamed Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings—could trace his lineage back thousands of years, to (many believe) the Queen of Sheba. The final emperor of Ethiopia had ruled 26 million subjects and gained the worship of growing numbers of Rastafari—many of whom still believe today.

Mahayana New Year: Buddhists meditate, gather with family and friends

Two smiling Mahayana Buddhists in front of city buildings, additional monks in background

Mahayana Buddhists in Nepal. Photo courtesy of Flickr

THURSDAY, JANUARY 16: Most of world marked a Gregorian New Year just two weeks ago, but for Mahayana Buddhists, the New Year comes today: on the full moon day of January. Though customs and moon sightings vary by region, devotees in Mahayana countries—such as Tibet, Korea, Mongolia, China, Japan, Nepal, Vietnam and Indonesia—mark the New Year as a time of meditation.

Though Buddhism stresses the importance of frequent and even daily self-reflection, the New Year stands apart as celebrated with visits among family and friends and the release of old karma. In many regions, statues of Buddha are bathed in a sacred ceremony. Having cleaned their homes in preparation for the New Year, many homes host a feast of traditional foods and the exchange of well wishes.  A quieter, more solemn custom involves the printing of past sins onto slips of paper, then casting them into a fire in attempts to free oneself from the negative consequences of bad karma and to garner a fresh start.

Did you know? The Mahayana tradition began in India and claims 56 percent of Buddhist practitioners—the largest tradition within Buddhism today. Traditions within Mahayana include Zen, Chinese Chan, Pure Land, Tiantai, Nichiren and Vajrayana.

Tu B’Shevat (or Tu Bishvat) celebrates renewal of life

This photograph of an almond tree's first buds was taken in Jerusalem by Yair Haklai on February 2, 2013. Photo released for public use via Wikimedia Commons.

This photograph of an almond tree’s first buds was taken in Jerusalem by Yair Haklai on February 2, 2013. Photo released for public use via Wikimedia Commons.

SUNSET WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15, to SUNSET THURSDAY, 16: This week, we welcome two Jewish friends of ReadTheSpirit to tell the story of this minor-yet-fascinating holiday. First, we hear from scholar and author Joe Lewis, who many of our readers know as the husband of FeedTheSpirit columnist Bobbie Lewis. And, yes, Bobbie Lewis has contributed her own Tu B’Shevat column—with a delicious recipe!

Here’s Joe Lewis …

Tu B’Shevat is a mystery for American readers in northern states! How can we pretend that this is a new year for trees when the ground is frozen solid?

“Ahhh,” the Rabbi explains, “That’s a good question. But, in Israel spring has come, the northern hillsides are about to be carpeted with delicate wildflowers, and the trees are in bud.”

“But Rabbi, that’s nuts! How can you say the trees are in bud when the Hebrew calendar floats to and fro against the solar calendar by three weeks or so?”

Here the Rabbi avoids the question and says: “Hmmm, nuts?! Yes, we celebrate the almond blossoms which appear early, and we eat almonds and other fruits of the land of Israel. Even if (the Rabbi continues) spring has not arrived where we live, we mark the return of spring to the land we consider holy. And don’t forget that golden almond blossoms embellished the menorah in our wilderness sanctuary (Ex. 25:31-40), and almond blossoms budded overnight to confirm Aaron’s priestly authority (Num. 17:8).” (What student can persist against this sea of allusions?)

By the 15th of the month of Shevat, Israel’s winter rains are generally completed, and in ancient times this marked the end of one agricultural year and the beginning of the next. Since farmers were supposed to “tithe” each year’s produce, and to let a tree grow for three years before harvesting its fruit, they needed to know the start of the year: the fifteenth of Shevat was the date.

After the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of most Jewish people from their ancient land, many countries did not allow Jewish people to own land or farm it. Unable to celebrate as farmers, our longing for our land was heightened. The land, its rituals and its fruits (the “seven species” of Deut. 8:8) accrued mystical significance. And when the Jewish people returned to the land and recovered their own state, our mystical yearnings bore reality, for now we could grow and enjoy the fruits of the land.

Today, many communities celebrate the day with a meal enjoying fruits such as nuts and dates. It’s called a Tu B’Shevat Seder, and it’s a time to consider our connection to and responsibility for the land of Israel and for the planet we share with every living being. (Remember to read Bobbie Lewis’s column about a Tu B’Shevat Seder.)

What about the “Tu” in “Tu Bishvat”? The ninth and sixth letters of the Hebrew alphabet form “Tu” and represent 15. Why not use the tenth and fifth letters? Oh, that’s one of the names of God, so in Hebrew counting 15 is 9+6 and never 10+5.

The Hebrew calendar has its own logic, though some might say that Hebrew dates are—well, nuts.

(If you like this piece, you can learn more about Joe Lewis’s work in producing Jewish guides to prayers and rituals written to include people who don’t speak or read Hebrew.)

Here’s Rabbi Bob Alper …

Bob is the author of our new book: Thanks. I Needed That. He added this Tu B’Shevat story:

To be perfectly honest, the minor Jewish holiday of Tu B’Shevat never spoke to me nearly as much as other Jewish holidays did.

Until I cut down a tree.

Last summer it was time to take down a huge maple in our yard. I had my old chainsaw sharpened, cleared brush around the tree’s wide base, and, just before pulling the starter cord, enticed our dog into the house. I realized that a dog who doesn’t understand “fetch” and “stay” probably doesn’t know how to respond appropriately and quickly to “timber.”

The tree went down smoothly—landing only 90 degrees from my carefully planned target area. Fortunately, we’re rural enough so there were neither wires nor buildings in the way.

Then commenced the clean-up, a task I thought I could handle fairly quickly. Here’s where I developed an unanticipated new respect for that simple tree. It took days. The lovely branches, for years just part of the beautiful scenery, required hours of chainsawing, dragging, and, at the last, splitting, before the lawn was once again empty, the branches piled behind the small cemetery on our property, and the large pieces split, transported, and added to our woodpile.

I gained a new perspective about why trees should be celebrated and valued in community events such as Tu B’Shevat or its secular parallel, Arbor Day. That maple provided decades of shade and beauty, many years of maple sugar, and now, at the last, fuel for our winter.

And throughout my days of toil, I continually thought of the words carved on a board above the dining hall fireplace at the camp I attended as a kid: “He who chops his own wood, warms himself twice.”

 (This column originally published at ReadTheSpirit, an online magazine covering religion, spirituality, values and interfaith and cross-cultural issues.)