Rethinking Thanksgiving to Remember our Native Neighbors

Thanksgiving, as the United States’ origin story, leaves out painful truths about the nation’s history. Giving thanks, however, has always been part of Native Americans’ everyday lives. Image: Earnest L. Spybuck (Absentee Shawnee, 1883–1949). “Shawnee Home Life about 1890,” painted in 1910. Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. (CLICK on this image to visit Smithsonian magazine, where you can read the entire article that features this painting by Earnest Spybuck.)

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Resources for Remembrance and Reconnection

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THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 25—Perhaps the American culture surrounding Thanksgiving now is so far from its roots in the 1600s that questions about our “American” relationships with our continent’s original residents have become irrelevant. There’s a strong argument that American Thanksgiving culture now focuses overwhelmingly on food, family, sports and early Christmas shopping. At this point, for millions of Americans, our moral responsibility to our Indigenous neighbors is far from the front of our hearts and minds on the holiday.

We are not the only ones to have forgotten any Thanksgiving roots in the 1600s. Those scenes were far from the minds of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln when they established national Thanksgiving holidays.

For both presidents, Thanksgiving was mainly a time to celebrate having survived wars. Read George Washington’s original 1789 Thanksgiving Proclamation and two things are obvious: First, he never mentions Native Americans. Second, he is calling on Euro-Americans to celebrate that they have survived the Revolutionary War and seem to be thriving. Read Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Thanksgiving Proclamation and the same two truths are clear: The “thanks” involves the Civil War and Native Americans are invisible. In fact, Lincoln celebrates the westward expansion of European immigrants.

The next major holiday milestone, 1939, was President Franklin Roosevelt’s Thanksgiving Proclamation. Once again we see the same truths: No mention of Indigenous people, although FDR did salute the Pilgrims, and once again Thanksgiving is tied to war, the global “turmoil” that would become World War II. In fact, in 1939, the truth that FDR never mentioned in his proclamation was: Americans needed to shop! Roosevelt’s big decision that year was to move the holiday slightly earlier—on the next-to-the-last Thursday of November—after concerted lobbying by the merchandizing tycoon Fred J. Lazarus, founder of Federated Department Stores, which became Macy’s. (Check out Macy’s own timeline and scroll down to 1939.) Native Americans certainly had nothing to do with that huge marketing effort.

In fact, the largely fanciful tales of a Pilgrim-and-Indian Thanksgiving feast shared in school pageants nationwide were not commonly known in Washington’s and Lincoln’s eras—and were barely on FDR’s cultural radar screen. When these images were merged with all the holiday hoopla in schools after World War II, Native leaders were so perplexed and uncomfortable with this story that they began to protest.

Click on this photo to enlarge it for easier reading.

The first National Day of Mourning was held in 1970. Wikipedia describes the events leading to this protest that created an alternative holiday:

For the 350th anniversary in 1970 of the Pilgrim’s arrival in North America (landing on Wampanoag land), the Commonwealth of Massachusetts planned to celebrate friendly relations between their ancestors and the Wampanoag. Wampanoag leader Wamsutta, also known as Frank James, was invited to make a speech at the celebration. When his speech was reviewed by the anniversary planners, they decided it would not be appropriate. The reason is given: “…the theme of the anniversary celebration is brotherhood and anything inflammatory would have been out of place.” Wamsutta had based his speech on a Pilgrim’s account of the first year in North America: a recollection of opening of graves, taking existing supplies of corn and bean and selling Wampanoag as slaves for 220 shillings each. After receiving a revised speech, written by a public relations person, Wamsutta decided he would not attend the celebration. To protest the attempted silencing of his position detailing the uncomfortable truth of the First Thanksgiving, he and his supporters went to neighboring Cole’s Hill. Near the statue of Massasoit, the leader of the Wampanoag when the Pilgrims landed, and overlooking Plymouth Harbour and the Mayflower replica, Wamsutta gave his original speech. This was the first National Day of Mourning.

Smithsonian and Native Leaders Say:
Please Think of Us—But Accurately

In fact, the central theme of the educational materials developed by Native American leaders working through the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian focus on properly crediting Native Americans as part of this nation’s Thanksgiving tradition.

Here are some media resources to help you, your family, your congregation and community rethink Thanksgiving as it relates to our Indian neighbors:

2021 WASHINGTON POST REPORTING—One of the most in-depth stories we’ve seen in 2021 was reported by Dana Hedgepeth, headlined: This tribe helped the Pilgrims survive for their first Thanksgiving. They still regret it 400 years later.

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN provides some very helpful educational materials. Here is the gateway page that introduces American Indian Perspectives on Thanksgiving. Then, if you care to jump directly to the downloadable PDF of the study guide, you can visit this page.

NATIVE VOICES CONVERGE—The Smithsonian magazine’s collection of Native voices concerning Thanksgiving began with a 2011 column written by Dennis W. Zotigh, a  writer who is part of the Kiowa and Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo and Isante Dakota peoples. It all began when Zotigh was asked by the Smithsonian to answer the question: Do American Indians Celebrate Thanksgiving? What happened next surprised the Smithsonian editors: Native voices from across the nation began attaching comments to the original story. So, over a decade, Zotigh’s original words have been expanded.

HULU TASTE OF THE NATION—If you have access to HULU, check out the “Truth and the Turkey Tale” episode of Padma Laksmi’s series Taste of the Nation.

LAND ACKNOWLEDGMENT AS A SMALL FIRST GESTURE—This year, our online magazine is highlighting emerging stories about relationships with our Native American neighbors. We have been reporting on both the tragic history and the multi-faceted opportunities, today, in establishing cooperative relationships. As residents of North America, we have an enormous amount of work ahead of us, including coming to terms with centuries of trauma in North American Indian boarding schools. Author and journalist Bill Tammeus reported this recent story for us about the emerging practice of “land acknowledgement.” Bill also provides many links to great reading and online resources—including a very useful Native Land app for smartphones.

‘INVENTION OF THANKSGIVING’ VIDEO—In this short video, shared via the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian, Paul Chaat Smith (Comanche and co-curator of the award-winning exhibition Americans) looks at why the Thanksgiving story is so important to the United States’ image of itself as a nation. NOTE: Because this video is shared via YouTube, you can also share it with family, friends, your class or small group.

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FINALLY, A HEARTBREAKING MAP: In 1605, explorer Samuel de Champlain had this detailed map drawn of the thriving Wampanoag village he visited along the shoreline where Pilgrims would land 15 years later. Between de Champlain’s visit and that historic 1620 landing by the Pilgrims, a virulent epidemic had raged through Wampanoag tribal lands that killed virtually all of the men, women and children in this particular village. The disease, an infection with symptoms similar to smallpox, was the result of early contacts with Europeans that spread the epidemic throughout the native communities. As the Pilgrims landed in 1620, they soon realized they were moving into what amounted to a ghost town. When Pilgrims explored the village’s ruins, they found ghastly evidence of the epidemic, including unburied skeletons of the last few native men and women to die. To learn more about the Wompanoag, you’ll enjoy Wikipedia’s extensive article with many links to other resources.

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Happy Halloween! And Allhallowtide, Samhain and Dia de los Muertos too!

Kids in costumes in a row, smiling

Photo courtesy of Shaw Air Force Base

SUNDAY, OCTOBER 31 and SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 1 and MONDAY, NOVEMBER 2—From Samhain to Mexico’s Day of the Dead to Halloween, world cultures celebrate the belief that at this time of year, the veil between this world and the next is particularly thin—and ancestors are held close. Don’t worry, it’s not all solemn and bone-chilling, though—today’s secular Halloween also brings out bright Jack-o-lanterns, loads of candy and a pretty good excuse for adults to join in on the fun with kids. So grab your best ghoulish mask and get the (Halloween) party started!

THE COVID-19 HALLOWEEN FORECAST

This year, the nation’s leading public-health experts are encouraging families to enjoy outdoor Trick or Treating. The most-shared advice in mid-October comes from Dr. Anthony Fauci, who declared:”Go out there and enjoy Halloween!” That line formed the headline of lots of subsequent newspaper and magazine stories. Fauci explained that during a typical Trick or Treat stroll, “You’re outdoors for the most part. Enjoy it. This is a time children love. It’s an important time of the year for children.”

In fact CNN has been predicting a Halloween “blowout.” CNN reported, for example: “The National Retail Federation expects Halloween spending to hit a record $10.14 billion. … Candy and chocolate sales are already soaring above 2020 levels, according to the National Confectioners Association, a trade group.”

Then USA Today detailed that spending: “Most of the spending will go to costumes: $3.32 billion, 27% more than last year and the most since consumers spent $3.35 billion in 2017. Almost as much–$3.17 billion–will be spent on decorations. And $3 billion will be spent on candy.”

However, that does not mean families can expect all of the typical pre-COVID traditions and events to be back on their regional schedules this year.

One big category of cancelations involves apartment complexes. Many high-rise complexes have cancelled Trick or Treating again this year, because children would be crowding into indoor spaces such as hallways and elevators. But the rules vary widely. Complexes with plenty of outdoor community space may still be holding events.

Bottom line: Check on any events in your community that you and your kids would like to attend.

Tips for Halloween Fun

One of the most highly recommended set of 2021 tips comes from The American Academy of Pediatrics’ website HealthyChildren.org, headlined: Halloween & COVID-19: Have Fun While Staying Safe. In addition to ideas for family fun, that list of tips ends with links covering food allergies and advice about face makeup and costumes that include decorative contact lenses.

Want even more ideas? Here are webpages packed with tips and resources from Nickelodeon and Nick Jr., Oprah Daily, Country Living, Good Housekeeping, Womans’ Day and even Ree Drummond’s The Pioneer Woman.

HALLOWEEN: A CHRISTIAN ORIGIN & A CULTURAL PHENOMENON

Allhallowtide, the triduum of Halloween, recalls deceased spirits, saints (hallows) and martyrs alike, in one collective commemoration. The word Halloween is of Christian origin, and many Christians visit graveyards during this time to pray and place flowers and candles at the graves of their deceased loved ones. The two days following All Hallows Eve—All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day—pay homage to the souls that Christians believe are now with God. In medieval England, Christians went “souling” on Halloween, begging for soul cakes in exchange for prayers in local churches.

Halloween’s secular side has emerged during the past century, and today, trick-or-treating, carving pumpkins, visiting haunted houses, watching horror movies and dressing up like favorite characters has become custom in Western culture.

SAMHAIN: GUISING FOR A TRICK

pumpkin candles darkness

Photo courtesy of Pxhere

The original Samhain marked the end of the harvest season and ushered in winter, or the “darker half” of the year, in Gaelic Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. During this time of year, bonfires were lit for the purpose of divination and as a protective and cleansing measure. Legend has it that spirits could easily come to earth, and many people would leave out food and drink for the roaming entities.

In many households, ancestors were welcomed to the table with particular enthusiasm, and large meals were prepared. Multiple sites in Ireland were, and still are, associated with Samhain, and the spirits that emerge there at this time of year. Guising—donning a costume—was thought to “trick” ill-intentioned spirits roaming the streets near Samhain, and hallowed-out turnips were lit with a candle and placed in windows, their monstrous carved faces frightening bad spirits.

Today’s Samhain emerged as part of the late 19th century Celtic Revival, and Neopagans, Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans and Wiccans all celebrate the holiday, in slightly varying ways. Most keep the widespread traditions of lighting bonfires, paying homage to ancestors, welcoming the “darker” season and preparing feasts with apples, nuts, meats, seasonal vegetables and mulled wines.

MUERTOS: DAY OF THE DEAD

Vibrant decorations for Dia de los Muertos, or Day of the Dead, mark towns in Mexico and Latin American communities far and wide, as the lives of the departed are celebrated with vigor. The full festival of Dia de los Muertos typically lasts two or three days (in some regions, customs begin on October 31), and traditionally, November 1 pays tribute to the souls of children and the innocent while November 2 is dedicated to deceased adult souls. In Mexico, relatives adorn altars and graves with elaborate garlands and wreaths, crosses made of flowers and special foods. Families gather in cemeteries, where pastors bestow prayers upon the dead. For children, Dia de los Muertos celebrations mean candy like sugar skulls and once-a-year treats; music and dancing delight celebrants of all ages.

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Raksha Bandhan: Celebrating Bonds between Brothers and Sisters

Women at marketplace looking at bracelets

Women shop for Raksha Bandhan. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

MONDAY, AUGUST 4: Across India and in Hindu communities worldwide, the sacred bonds between brothers and sisters are honored on Raksha Bandhan. Over many centuries, the rakhi (from Sanskrit, “the tie or knot of affection”) has evolved from simple, handspun threads into bangles adorned in jewels, crystals, cartoon characters and even political figures.

Two sisters renew bonds with their brother on Raksha Bandhan

Two sisters celebrate the holiday with their brother in a photo this family submitted to the Wikimedia Commons 2019 campaign, called “Wiki Loves Love.” Photo credit: Aasthap-dsc.

On a broader scale, Raksha Bandhan is a time for harmonious existence and a bond between leaders—teachers, political figures, civil authorities—and those they serve.

RAKSHA BANDHAN: COLORS AND RITUALS

Weeks before the culmination of Raksha Bandhan, Indian shops offer a bright palette of threads for women making their own rakhi; shops also are stocked with colorful premade rakhi. Men also shop market stands, searching for a token of love for their sisterly Raksha Bandhan companion.

The morning of the festival, brothers and sisters greet one another in, if possible, the presence of other family members. The sister ties a rakhi on her brother’s wrist, reciting prayers for his well-being and applying a colorful tilak mark to his forehead. The brother responds with thanks and a renewal of his sibling commitment, and the two indulge in sweet foods. The brother presents the sister with a gift, and everyone present rejoices in the gladness of family—often with a festive meal.

Some of the most popular Indian treats enjoyed on Raksha Bandhan may be surprisingly sweet to Westerners unaccustomed to Indian cuisine. A prime example is gulab jamun. Think of a donut hole soaked in syrup! India-based NDTV’s Food channel already has published tips for home-made gulab Jamun. Want other culinary options? NDTV’s Food channel also published these 11 suggestions for other delightful holiday dishes. The non-alcoholic Mango Basil Colada sounds especially refreshing!

Interested in making your own rakhi? Find 15 kid- and adult-friendly ideas at the blog Artsy Craftsy Mom, which features simple to complex DIY rakhi instructions.

A National Holiday

Raksha Bandhan is so popular that nearly every year government officials across India announce some kind of new service or public improvement related to the holiday. This year, one widely reported news story is a policy—in some regions—to offer free bus transportation for 24 hours so women can easily reach their brothers.

Each year, there also are efforts to encourage fitness on the holiday. One example, from The Times of Indiasuggests healthier choices for family banquets—and even suggests that a rakhi could be a fitness band.

Many families and organizations enjoy trying to take their festivities to extremes—competing for slots in the record books. For 2019, India-based Prokerala magazine takes a look at some of the records—and attempts at records.

Finally—and only in India—one of the country’s shelters for cows, sacred animals in Hinduism, has sparked headlines across the country for its new line of cow dung rakhis. No kidding! It’s one of a number of fundraisers to help support the shelter.

Purim: Jewish festival of Esther’s victory includes cookies, masquerade

Two plates of triangular-shaped, jelly-filled pastries

Hamantaschen, or “Haman’s pockets,” are a Purim treat. Photo by xeno4ka, courtesy of Pixabay

SUNSET MONDAY, MARCH 9: Eat! Drink! Be merry! The story of Purim is found in the pages of the book of Esther in the Hebrew scriptures of the Bible.

Today, with the start of Purim, fruit-filled cookies are served, outrageous costumes are donned, plenty of wine is consumed and comical skits entertain jovial audiences. In the synagogue, readings from the book of Esther evoke hissing, booing and stomping, as Jews “blot out” the name of the villainous Haman. Interestingly, the name of G_d is not mentioned in the book of Esther, and many Jews interpret this as indication that G_d works in ways that are not always apparent. On Purim, disguises and costumes serve as symbolism of G_d “hidden” behind the scenes.

ESTHER, MORDECAI AND AHASUERUS: THE STORY

When the beautiful young Esther was taken to the house of Ahasuerus, the king of Persia, she hid her Jewish identity. Esther’s guardian, Mordecai, held a key position in the kingdom but was hated by the king’s advisor for refusing to bow down to him. In a rage, the king’s advisor—Haman—plotted to kill Mordecai and all of the Jews.

The turning point was the king’s love of Esther, who was chosen to be his queen. Though Haman had already convinced King Ahasuerus to kill the Jews in Persia, Esther fasted for three days, approached the king and revealed her own Jewish identity, pleading with the king to save the Jewish population. The king later hanged Haman and his 10 sons on the gallows that had been prepared for Mordecai. The Jewish people in Persia were saved from the plot of Haman.

Popular Jewish author and columnist Debra Darvick, who penned This Jewish Life with real-life stories about men, women and children observing the festivals and milestones that mark the Jewish calendar, describes the way families approach the holiday of Purim this way:

“On the 14th of the month of Adar in the Jewish calendar, hilarity reigns as the holiday of Purim is celebrated. One is commanded to drink enough liquor so that it becomes impossible to distinguish between the phrases ‘cursed be Haman’ and ‘blessed be Mor- dechai.’ In Hebrew these words become a tongue twister, so it doesn’t take much.”

OBLIGATIONS AND HAMENTASCHEN

The carnivals and masquerades of Purim are accompanied by the four primary obligations of the day: to listen to a public reading of the book of Esther in the evening and the morning; to send food gifts to friends; to give charity to the poor; and to partake in a festive meal.

The signature treat for this holiday is Hamantaschen: Haman’s pockets. FeedTheSpirit columnist Bobbie Lewis tells the story of baking these delicious triangular treats in her family—and provides her own recipe for these cookies.

EXTRA RECIPES: An array of Purim recipes can be found at AllRecipes. For a crunchy take on Haman’s pockets, try these—made of Rice Krispies. Thirsty? Try making your own apricot-infused bourbon for Purim.

Black History Month in February 2019

Frederick Douglass composite of images from Wikimedia Commons.

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FEBRUARY, all month long—We have a rich array of resources to recommend for your reflections on Black History Month this year. Let’s start with a question:

Why is Black History Month in February?

Carter G. Woodson

The “father of black history” was historian and author Carter G. Woodson (1875-1950) who co-founded the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) in 1915 as well as The Journal of Negro History in 1916.

A decade later, in 1926, Woodson capitalized on two milestones that were widely observed each year among African American families: Abraham Lincoln’s birthday on February 12 and Frederick Douglass’ birthday on February 14. He wisely scheduled his new Negro History Week to appeal naturally to those communities already looking to the past in early February.

However, Woodson had a far larger vision for his observance: He wanted to encourage organized programs to teach African American history in public schools. At first, he could find only a handful of early adopters in schools in North Carolina, Delaware, West Virginia, Maryland and Washington D.C.

Woodson was a prolific author and argued that establishing a well-known body of history was crucial to the survival of black culture and the potential for African-American progress. “If a race has no history, it has no worthwhile tradition, it becomes a negligible factor in the thought of the world, and it stands in danger of being exterminated,” he wrote. In particular, Woodson admired Jewish leaders who had kept their culture, tradition and communities alive despite many historic threats to their survival.

He started with two birthdays that already were popular in African-American communities and, around those two dates, he built a national movement of educators that expanded into a month-long focus.

One-Stop Listing of National Events

The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum all are joining in tribute to the generations of African Americans who struggled with adversity. Here’s a one-stop website for all of those events and programs.

A Hero’s Journey

We’ve got an excellent way to mark this annual observance. Get a copy of the new book The Black Knight and enjoy the dramatic story of Col. Clifford Worthy’s courage in agreeing to become one of the first black cadets at West Point in the 1940s after President Truman signed the order integrating the U.S. Army.

Cliff’s story is a national treasure for many reasons. Here’s one: The U.S. Military Academy traces its roots back to 1801, but the West Point Association of Graduates—its influential alumni organization—was organized in 1869 so this new year is the group’s sesquicentennial. Special events are planned all year long to celebrate the Long Gray Line. That starts with the new Winter 2019 issue of West Point magazine. If you click on that link, you can “flip through” the pages of that special issue—but we urge you to jump right to page 54, where the West Point Authors Bookshelf features Clifford Worthy’s new memoir, The Black Knight: An African-American Family’s Journey from West Point-A Life of Duty, Honor and Country. You also can learn much more about that new book on Amazon.

Confront Racism
with accurate information

100 Questions and Answers about African Americans

Click the cover to visit the book’s Amazon page.

The Michigan State University School of Journalism has published a very helpful guidebook, 100 Questions and Answers About African Americans.

Why does racism continue to throw up so many tragic barriers in the U.S.? Part of the problem could be that we just don’t know each other very well. The Public Religion Research Institute asked people about their closest networks. About 75 percent of White Americans said all their closest confidants were White. About 65 percent of Black respondents said all their confidants were African American. Among Hispanics, the number was 46 percent.

In the Michigan State University School of Journalism, students are trying to take make cross-cultural conversations less awkward. Students start this process by asking people what questions they get about themselves, or wish others knew the answers to. Then, the guides answer those common questions. The students hope that these guides answer baseline questions people are curious about, but might be reluctant to ask because they don’t want to embarrass themselves or offend others.

100 Questions and Answers About African Americans answers potentially awkward questions:

• Should I say Black or African American?
• Why is slavery still an issue for some people?
• Why is it that White people can’t say the n-word, but some Black people do?
• What is the Black National Anthem?
• Do Black people get sunburns?

The guide answers some common misperceptions:
• Is it true there are more Black men in prison than in college?
• Are African Americans the chief beneficiaries of affirmative action?
• Does most federal food assistance go to African Americans?
• Did Abraham Lincoln end slavery?

And the guide explains achievement in rising educational and health levels, high voter turnout and accomplishments in science, technology and the arts.

So it’s July? Hot Dog! And … Ice Cream, Chocolate and Fried Chicken, too!

Click on this delicious image to visit Joe Grimm’s Author Page on Amazon.

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JULY—Farmers and food sellers find all sorts of timely connections celebrating edible delights in every month of our calendar. When July breaks across America, we all brace for the so-called Dog Days, which begin with the rising of the Dog Star, more properly known as Sirius. Over time, that could occur as early as July 3. This year, astronomers tell us, Dog Days begin later—July 22 and extend well into August.

Click to see the Hot Dog Month Planning Guide.

Of course, Americans have come to associate hot dogs with July, particularly because of our love of July 4 Independence Day cookouts. As always, industry groups have a host of hot dog promotions rolling out this month. The mother lode comes from the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council (NHDSC). No kidding! It’s a real institution with a nine-page PDF of ideas for celebrating July as National Hot Dog Month.

The Council has details in this PDF for applicants who want to be named official NHDSC Hot Dog Ambassadors. Here is part of the group’s invitation to would-be ambassadors:

The state of Hot Dog Nation is strong and while the Hot Dog Top Dog and Queen of Wien lead the way at the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council, it’s time for us to enlist official Hot Dog Ambassadors. … Everyone who enters will be classified as a Wiener Warrior with their own Wiener Warrior card.

Here at ReadTheSpirit magazine, our own resident hot dog expert is author Joe Grimm, who brought the world Coney Detroit, a colorful homage to Michigan’s favorite version of this all-American treat. Check out Joe Grimm’s books on his Amazon Author Page.

Had enough hot dog news?

Take the Washington Post ice cream quiz.

July also is National Ice Cream Month. Again, no kidding! President Ronald Reagan signed a joint resolution of Congress into law in 1984. That included declaring a National Ice Cream Day in the middle of the month, which tends to move around the calendar because retailers prefer a weekend holiday. One hub of ice cream activism is the International Dairy Foods Association. But our best newsy clip about the observance comes from The Washington Post with a fun ice cream quiz. Throughout the month, various industry groups have declared other special days related to ice cream. For example, there’s often a national day for peach ice cream and another for plain vanilla. There’s even a day in July promoted by some trade groups as National Milk Shake Day. Those “holidays” tend to be driven by industry advertisers but keep an eye out this month—and you might find some tasty treats on sale at local eateries and ice cream shops.

Chocolate is a messier celebration—that is, it’s messier to identify clearly on the calendar. All around the world, there are lots of declarations about when to celebrate chocolate, apparently because people love the stuff so much. One of these occasions falls on July 7 and is called World Chocolate Day. We say: Hey, if you love chocolate, celebrate whenever you can!

July 6 is National Fried Chicken Day. Watch your favorite national chicken chain for special deals and discounts in early July. Kentucky Fried Chicken usually marks this special occasion in some way, each year.

Enjoy!

 

 

Plan ahead to celebrate Jewish and Asian Pacific history in May

JEWISH AMERICAN HISTORY MONTH

For more than a decade, Jewish American History Month has been an official national observance. President W. Bush proclaimed the special focus in 2006 after bi-partisan congressional support. Various receptions, events and special exhibits are usually held each May and the Library of Congress set up this extensive website to provide photos, documents and historical background in general. Within that larger site, on this page, librarians link to a long list of historical materials that relate to American Jews over the last four centuries. There’s even a special section of the site welcoming teachers who are looking for classroom materials.

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ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN HERITAGE MONTH

President Jimmy Carter launched this special observance in 1978, following a congressional resolution. The declaration called this a commemoration of “the immigration of the first Japanese to the United States on May 7, 1843, and to mark the anniversary of the completion of the transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869. The majority of the workers who laid the tracks were Chinese immigrants.” The Library of Congress also hosts a resource-rich website. The librarians offer these links to exhibits and collections. They also offer materials for teachers.

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